The image depicts a river naming upstream, midstream, and downstream.
Posted in upstream vs downstream

Public health “Upstream – downstream parable”

Those who know public health know Irving Zola’s “upstream-downstream” parable. Irving Zola is a medical sociologist. His friend, John McKinlay, describes Zola’s parable in his 2019 article1 titled “A case for re-focusing upstream: The political economy of illness”1. The “Upstream boat” sails this upstream path. Following is the reproduction of…

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