Those who know public health know Irving Zola’s “upstream-downstream” parable. Irving Zola is a medical sociologist. His friend, John McKinlay, describes Zola’s parable in his 2019 article1 titled “A case for re-focusing upstream: The political economy of illness”1.
The “Upstream boat” sails this upstream path.
Following is the reproduction of the parable;
” I am standing by the shore of a swiftly flowing river, and I hear the cry of a drowning man. So I jump into the river, put my arms around him, pull him to shore, and apply artificial respiration. When he begins to breathe, there is another cry for help. So I jump into the river, reach him, pull him to shore, apply artificial respiration, and then just as he begins to breathe, another cry for help. So back into the river again; another cry!.
Again and again, without end, goes the sequence.
You know I am so busy jumping in, pulling them to shore, do the same, that I have no time to see who the hell is upstream pushing them all in”.
This public health metaphor classic forces us to re-focusing our attention on the highest impact interventions. It becomes an effective tool within the Social Determinants of Health framework.
Graphical presentations of the Zola’s parable
Progressive organizations employ this parable to make their mission clearer to everyone. Following are two examples of such graphics;
Sudbury and Districts public health in Ontario, Canada
The following graphic appears on the website, which belongs to the public health Sudbury and Districts in the Ontario province. It vividly explains Zola’s parable.
National Collborating Center for Determinants of Health (NCCDH)
The above NCCDH infographic travels a little further; It divides the stream into three;
Stream specific interventions
Let us begin with downstream determinants and their interventions. According to Zola’s parable, he saves lives one-by-one. So, the focus is on the individual – one unit. We can add one family also here.
We strive here to change the effects of the causes: by treating an illness, screening for it etc. Most of the healthcare budget spends on such activities: To improve the service delivery and equitable access to services.
The midstream approaches focus on improving working and living conditions and promoting healthy behaviours. According to the NCCDH, these changes occur at local, community and organizational levels. Unlike in the downstream interventions, here we attempt to change the causes of illnesses.
In contrast to the above two, the upstream interventions create positive environments that impact both midstream and downstream conditions and interventions. Without upstream approaches, other interventions become unsustainable. These types of interventions either change or reform macro-level policies, both national and global.
In other words, the upstream interventions address “causes of the causes” and are also called “social determinants of health”.
With the help of Irving Zola’s river story parable, we can visualize the causes, causes of the causes, and appropriate best return of investments.
- John B McKinlay (2019): A Case of Re-focusing Upstream: The Political Economy of Illness; IAPHS Occassional Classics, November 19 2019; https://iaphs.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/11/IAPHS-McKinlay-Article.pdf