The UpStream public health tool library

Welcome to the upstream public health tool library!

In this toolbox, you can navigate through the published blog posts organized under the following directions; it builds on with time.

  • Assessment tools relevant to upstream public health
  • Tools to assess behaviours
  • Tools to change behaviours
  • Tools to evaluate the impact

Assessment tools relevant to upstream public health

Theories, models, frameworks, cognitive biases, and heuristics

Prospect theoryAn introduction
Social norms theoryHow social norms shape our behaviour
Health Belief ModelHow it was created, its evolution, and how it can be used in message framing
Theories of Reasoned Action and Planned BehaviourTheories of reasoned action and planned behaviour
Diffusion of Innovation TheoryDiffusion of innovation theory and the first follower
Stages of self-changeA journey to the origin and its evolution
Cognitive biases and heuristicsSelf-fulfilling prophecy
Pluralistic ignorance
False-consensus bias
Cognitive dissonance

Public health concepts, study designs, and interpretations

Prevention paradoxPrevention Paradox: An introduction
Prevention paradox in preventing alcohol-related problems
Simpson’s paradox Simpson’s paradox: A trap in data interpretation
Simple study designsFace mask compliance: A simple study design
Data interpretationGoodhart’s Law

Tools to assess behaviours

Quantifying alcohol-related problemsQuantifying alcohol-related problems with AUDIT
How to estimate the alcohol amount consumed
Measuring alcohol consumption

Intervention tools

Frameworks and modelsWHO’s multimodal hand hygiene strategy
The legendary journey of the Ottawa Charter
Persuasion through message framing/ StorytellingATP molecule as a coin in a slot machine
one death is a tragedy; a million is only a statistic.
The story of Frank
“The Plastic Bag”: A short story
Spin in science writingSpin in science writing – 1: reporting findings from observational study designs
Spin in science writing – 2: making clinical recommendations
Spin in science writing – 3: Misuse of adjectives
Spin in science writing – 4: Non-reporting of negative outcomes
Spin in science writing – 5: Psychiatry and Psychology
Spin in science writing-6: A critical look at a case-control study
Spin in science writing-7: A critic of a case-control study
Health EducationPaulo Freire’s critical consciousness
Message framing Gain-framing messaging to persuade quitting smoking
Message framing and climate crisis
Prospect theory in message framing
Extended Parallel Process Model
Third-person effect
“Got milk?” and “got polio?”: Me neither


Risk communication How to frame messages in an epidemic
WHO short guide on how to communicate risk in COVID-19
Words matter in COVID – 19 risk communication
Physical distancing is not social distancing
Avoid traps in risk communication
Cover your mouth AND the nose
Do your part; stay apart

Tools to evaluate the impact of interventions

Research ImpactA tool to evaluate research impact