Irving Zola’s upstream-downstream parable (or the metaphor) is a public health classic; it is a story of one individual who rescues drowning persons one by one; he spends all his time and laments not having time to search why these people fall into the downstream. This post discusses the metaphor’s origin and how it guides us in upstream public health practice.
Percentage of seniors in Ontario
By July 1, 2019, StatCan estimated that there were 14.5 million people in Ontario, Canada; of them, 17.3 per cent were seniors: aged 65 and above.
Homicide rates in Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka’s homicide rate has been much higher than many European countries including Canada but much lower than the USA.
The legendary Ottawa Charter for health promotion has travelled worldwide for 30 years from 1986 – 2016.
The “opt-out” default option is the strongest nudging strategy. It has brought many significant behaviour changes in all areas of our lives.
Do you want to know more about nudging? David Halpern introduces a simple tool for nudging: The E.A.S.T.
Paulo Freire, a Brazilian educationalist revolutionised adult education principles; these are still popular.