Dark blue tortuous lines tapering upward with a blue boar with its upper part
Posted in health promotion upstream vs downstream

What is upstream vs downstream in public health?

Those who know public health know Prof. Irving Zola‘s “upstream vs downstream” parable. Irving Zola is a medical sociologist. His friend, John McKinlay, describes Zola’s parable in his 2019 article titled “A case for re-focusing upstream: The political economy of illness”1. The “Upstream boat” sails through this upstream path. Following…

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